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Benefits of Vitamin D and K2 Supplements for Bone Health

Vitamin D is a vital vitamin that the human body needs to remain strong and healthy. Vitamin D increases your bone mass and strength and must be present for calcium absorption to prevent osteoporosis.

A combination of Vitamin D and K2 decreases your bone fracture risk and increases your bone mass, density, and strength.

Here’s is in-depth information as to why taking Vitamin D and K2 is beneficial for bone health and other additional health benefits of the supplementation of these two crucial supplements:

What is Vitamin D?

Vitamin D, also known as the “sunshine vitamin”, is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be naturally found in many food sources, dietary supplements, and in UV rays triggering Vitamin D synthesis. There are two major forms of Vitamin D, Vitamin D2 (“ergocalciferol” or Pre-Vitamin D) and Vitamin D3 (“cholecalciferol”).

Vitamin D2 is predominantly man-made and added to our food while Vitamin D3 is synthesized from UV rays, from the sun, in the human skin.

Vitamin D can be found in many food sources, but some have higher vitamin levels than others. The following food sources are primary sources of Vitamin D; Vitamin D-fortified milk, egg yolks, and fatty fish.

Why is Vitamin D Important for your Bone Health?

One of the primary roles of Vitamin D3 is to aid calcium absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus, which are crucial for maintaining strong and healthy bones. Without adequate intake of Vitamin D3, the human body cannot effectively absorb calcium, resulting in poor bone health. Sufficient levels of Vitamin D can help with bone mineralization and prevent conditions like osteoporosis, rickets (in children), and osteomalacia (softening of the bones in adults).

Calcium and Vitamin D work together in generating and protecting your bones. Calcium is the building block for generating, maintaining, and protecting your bones whilst Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium. Therefore, without enough Vitamin D, the human body would not be able to function properly and absorb calcium, hence chronic bone conditions would occur.

Vitamin D helps in the absorption of calcium from the intestines. Adequate levels of vitamin D ensure that calcium is absorbed efficiently, which is crucial for maintaining strong and healthy bones. Calcium is a key component of bone structure, and without adequate intake of sufficient Vitamin D, calcium absorption is impaired. Getting enough Vitamin D is crucial, whether it be through your diet or Vitamin D supplements as it is a vital part of osteoporosis prevention.

The Optimum Dose of Vitamin D for Bone Health:

The recommended daily Vitamin D dosage is calculated on age, sex, sun exposure, current weight, and ethnicity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends an average daily Vitamin K intake of 400-800 IU or 10-20 micrograms. However, this is the recommended amount and would need to be adjusted for individuals who are outside the average parameters.

What is Vitamin K2?

Vitamin K2 also known as “menaquinone” is 1 of 3 types of Vitamin K, the other two are known as Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and Vitamin K3 (menaphthone). Vitamin K2 is generally found in fermented foods and organ meats – things people don’t eat a lot of.

The human gut bacteria can also produce small amounts of Vitamin K2 but not optimal concentrations to sustain the human body for good bone health. 

Why is Vitamin K2 Important for Bone Health?

Vitamin K2 is the most efficient vitamin within the Vitamin K group. Vitamin K2 increases the bone-building process within soft tissues of the human body and decreases the bone-loss process. Vitamin K2 plays a vital role in calcium metabolism, calcium is the main mineral found in your bones and teeth.

Vitamin K2 plays a role in bone mineralization, which is the process of depositing minerals such as calcium and phosphorus into the bone matrix. It activates proteins that are responsible for incorporating calcium into bone tissue, helping to strengthen the bones and prevent mineral loss.

Human studies suggest that Vitamin K2 provides excellent benefits for bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis. Evidence suggests that taking Vitamin K2 supplements minimizes the increased risk of fractures which is commonly seen among older women. Vitamin K2 builds and maintains bones by activating two proteins found within the human body, Matrix GLA protein and osteocalcin gene.

Other Benefits of Vitamin D and K2

  1. Immune function: Vitamin D supports immune system function and helps regulate the immune response. It has been associated with a lower risk of respiratory infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain cancers.

  2. Mood and mental health: Some research suggests that vitamin D has a role in regulating mood and supporting mental health. Adequate levels of vitamin D have been associated with a reduced risk of depression and improved overall well-being.

  3. Muscle function: Vitamin D is involved in muscle function and plays a role in preventing muscle weakness and improving muscle strength.

  4. Blood clotting: Vitamin K, including K2, is essential for proper blood clotting. It helps activate clotting factors in the blood to prevent excessive bleeding.

Additional Benefits of Vitamin K2 on Heart Health:

Vitamin K2 plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases and is often ignored. Evidence indicates a synergistic effect between Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 on heart health.

Vitamin K2 has potential benefits for heart health, primarily through its role in regulating calcium metabolism and preventing arterial calcification. 

Here are some potential benefits of Vitamin K2 on heart health:

  1. Arterial health:

    Vitamin K2 activates matrix Gla protein (MGP), which helps inhibit the deposition of calcium in the arteries. By preventing arterial calcification, Vitamin K2 helps maintain the elasticity and integrity of blood vessels, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke.

  2. Cardiovascular disease prevention:

    Studies have suggested that a higher intake of Vitamin K2 is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. One study found that individuals with the highest intake of Vitamin K2 had a significantly lower risk of developing coronary artery calcification, a marker of early-stage heart disease.

  3. Blood pressure regulation:

    Vitamin K2 may help regulate blood pressure levels. Some research suggests that adequate levels of Vitamin K2 may contribute to the relaxation of blood vessels, supporting healthy blood pressure.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects:

    Chronic inflammation plays a role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin K2 has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, which may help reduce inflammation in blood vessels and protect against heart disease.

If you have concerns about your heart health or are considering Vitamin K2 or calcium supplementation alone, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional who can provide personalized advice based on your individual health status and medical history.

The Benefits of  Taking Vitamin D and K2 Supplements 

Vitamin D and K2 are a perfect pair as both vitamins D and K2 work hand in hand for good bone health, this is due to the fact that one vitamin optimizes the productivity of the other. Both vitamins are fat-soluble and therefore, work together in harmony to support calcium metabolism by activating the correct proteins in your body.

Vitamin D improves the rate at which calcium is absorbed but K2 is responsible for the correct allocation of calcium to where it can be used. Therefore one vitamin relies on the other in order to be effective. It’s important to note that the benefits of Vitamin D and Vitamin K supplements on bone health are most effective when combined with a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle factors that promote overall bone health.

By taking Vitamin D and K2 together, you can ensure proper calcium absorption, utilization, and distribution in the body. This helps maintain strong bones, prevent bone loss, and reduce the risk of fractures. Additionally, the combined action of these vitamins supports cardiovascular health by preventing arterial calcification and maintaining healthy blood vessel function.

Synergistic Effect:

Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 work synergistically to support bone health. Vitamin D helps with calcium absorption, while Vitamin K2 directs calcium to the bones and teeth, preventing it from accumulating in soft tissues like arteries, blood vessels, and joints. This cooperation between the two vitamins ensures that calcium is properly utilized and contributes to strong bone density.

Vitamin D and K2’s Impact on Immunity

The COVID-19 virus revolutionized consumer attitudes toward health. The importance of preventing infection is often mentioned. Globally, consumers know the optimal nutritional status for immune function, especially in cases of infections. In order to support immune function, the human population is increasingly choosing diets or nutritional options that provide many possible immune advantages that may help them.

Vitamin K2, like other forms of Vitamin K, is known for its role in blood clotting and bone health. Studies have suggested that Vitamin K2 has anti-inflammatory properties and could potentially modulate immune responses. It has been proposed that these effects might have implications for COVID-19, which involves an inflammatory response.

Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 play important roles in supporting the immune system.

Here’s an overview of their effects on immunity:

Vitamin D:

  1. Immune cell function: Vitamin D is involved in the regulation of immune cell function, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation. It helps modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  2. Antimicrobial defense: Vitamin D has antimicrobial properties and can enhance the immune system’s ability to defend against pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects: Vitamin D has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, helping to regulate and reduce excessive immune responses. This can be beneficial in conditions where chronic inflammation plays a role, such as autoimmune diseases.

  4. Respiratory health: Vitamin D has been associated with a reduced risk of respiratory infections and may have a protective effect against respiratory tract infections, including colds, flu, and pneumonia. Adequate vitamin D levels have been linked to lower rates of acute respiratory tract infections.

Vitamin K2

  1. Regulation of immune responses: Vitamin K2 has been suggested to modulate immune responses, helping to balance and regulate the immune system’s actions. It may promote immune tolerance and prevent excessive inflammation.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects: Similar to vitamin D, Vitamin K2 possesses anti-inflammatory properties that can help regulate immune responses and reduce inflammation. Chronic inflammation can contribute to various diseases and conditions.

Additional Vitamin D and K2 Benefits

Alzheimer’s Disease

The relationship between Vitamin D, Vitamin K2, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) prevention is an area of ongoing research, and the evidence is still limited. However, here are some potential benefits of Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 on AD prevention based on the available scientific observational and clinical studies:

Vitamin D:

  1. Brain health and neuroprotection: Vitamin D has been found to play a role in brain health and neuroprotection. It has been suggested that Vitamin D helps reduce inflammation, regulate calcium homeostasis, and promote neuronal growth and survival, which could potentially have a protective effect against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s.

  2. Cognitive function: Some observational studies have suggested a link between low vitamin D levels and an increased risk of cognitive decline and AD. Adequate vitamin D levels may help support cognitive function and reduce the risk of cognitive impairment.

Vitamin K2:

  1. Brain health and vascular protection: Vitamin K2’s role in calcium metabolism and preventing arterial calcification may have implications for brain health. By supporting vascular health and reducing arterial stiffness, Vitamin K2 helps maintain healthy blood flow to the brain and potentially reduces the risk of cognitive decline and AD.

  2. Amyloid beta regulation: Amyloid beta plaques are a hallmark feature of AD. Some studies have suggested that Vitamin K2 may help regulate the production and accumulation of amyloid beta, potentially reducing the risk of AD.


The potential role of vitamin D and Vitamin K2 in cancer prevention is an area of active research. While studies have shown some promising associations. Here is an overview of the current understanding:

Vitamin D:

  1. Colorectal cancer: There is evidence suggesting that higher Vitamin D levels are associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Vitamin D may help regulate cell growth, inhibit tumor formation, and promote cell differentiation in the colon.

  2. Breast cancer: Some studies have found an association between higher Vitamin D levels and a decreased risk of breast cancer. Vitamin D may play a role in controlling cell growth, reducing inflammation, and promoting healthy breast tissue.

  3. Prostate cancer: Research on the link between Vitamin D and prostate cancer has produced mixed results. Some studies have found an association between Vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while others have not shown a significant association.

Vitamin K2:

  1. Prostate cancer: Preliminary research suggests that Vitamin K2, particularly menaquinone-4 (MK-4), may have potential benefits in reducing the risk of prostate cancer and inhibiting its progression. Vitamin K2 may help regulate cell growth and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in prostate cancer cells.

  2. Liver cancer: Some studies have suggested that higher Vitamin K2 intake or blood levels of Vitamin K2 are associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. Vitamin K2 may inhibit tumor growth and promote apoptosis in liver cancer cells.

Symptoms of vitamin D and k2 deficiency

How do you know if your body is deficient in vitamin D and k2?

Vitamin D and K2 deficiency can be seen and felt in the human body in the symptoms of fatigue, bone pain, muscle weakness, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, a specific symptom of vitamin k2 deficiency is the inability of blood vessels to form blood clots causing excessive bleeding.

Vitamin D and vitamin K2 deficiencies can have significant impacts on health. Here’s an overview of the potential consequences of deficiencies in these vitamins:

Vitamin D Deficiency:

  1. Impaired Bone Health:

    Vitamin D plays a crucial role in calcium absorption and bone mineralization. Inadequate vitamin D levels can lead to reduced calcium absorption, which can weaken bones and increase the risk of conditions like rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults.

  2. Muscle Weakness:

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with muscle weakness and poor muscle function. It may contribute to increased falls and fractures, particularly in older adults.

  3. Increased Risk of Chronic Diseases:

    Low vitamin D levels have been linked to an increased risk of various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disorders, certain cancers, and mental health conditions like depression.

  4. Impaired Immune Function:

    Vitamin D is involved in immune system regulation, and its deficiency may impair immune function, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases.

Vitamin K2 Deficiency:

  1. Impaired Bone Health:

    Vitamin K2 works synergistically with Vitamin D to promote proper calcium metabolism. Without sufficient Vitamin K2, calcium may accumulate in the arteries and other soft tissues rather than being directed to the bones, which can contribute to weakened bones and an increased risk of osteoporosis.

  2. Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease:

    Vitamin K2 deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of arterial calcification and atherosclerosis, which can lead to cardiovascular problems such as heart disease and stroke.

  3. Dental Issues:

    Insufficient Vitamin K2 levels may affect dental health, potentially contributing to tooth decay and poor teeth mineralization.

  4. Impaired Blood Clotting:

    Vitamin K2 is essential for the production of blood-clotting proteins. Its deficiency can lead to an increased risk of bleeding and impaired blood clotting.

  5. Potential Impact on Inflammation:

    Adequate levels of Vitamin K2 may help regulate inflammation, and its deficiency could potentially contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions.

It’s important to note that deficiencies in Vitamin D and K2 can have overlapping consequences, especially when it comes to bone health and cardiovascular health. If you suspect a deficiency, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional who can evaluate your specific situation and provide appropriate guidance on supplementation and dietary changes

Recommended Dosage of Combined Vitamin D and K2

An average daily intake of 400-800 IU, or 10-20 micrograms is the advised amount of Vitamin D that the average person should consume. However, this should be taken in conjunction with 1000 micrograms of Vitamin K2 to maintain normal body function.

Reasons to include Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 supplements

Vitamin D and K2 are both essential nutrients that play important roles in maintaining overall health and well-being. 

Here are the Top 10 benefits of Vitamin D and K2:

  1. Bone Health:

    Vitamin D and K2 work together to support optimal bone health. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium, while Vitamin K2 helps direct calcium to the bones and teeth, preventing calcium from depositing in the arteries and other soft tissues.

  2. Cardiovascular Health:

    Vitamin K2 is involved in regulating calcium metabolism, which can help prevent the buildup of calcium in the arteries and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases like heart disease and stroke.

  3. Immune Function:

    Vitamin D plays a crucial role in supporting a healthy immune system. It helps modulate the immune response, enhances the function of immune cells, and reduces the risk of autoimmune disorders.

  4. Cancer Prevention:

    Both Vitamin D and K2 are associated with a lower risk of certain types of cancer. Vitamin D may help reduce the risk of colorectal, breast, prostate, and other cancers, while Vitamin K2 has shown potential in preventing certain types of cancers, such as liver and lung cancer.

  5. Dental Health:

    Vitamin D and K2 contribute to maintaining strong and healthy teeth. Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium, which is essential for tooth mineralization, while vitamin K2 helps prevent tooth decay by regulating calcium deposition.

  6. Mood and Mental Health:

    Vitamin D has been linked to improved mood and mental well-being. Adequate levels of vitamin D may help reduce the risk of depression, improve cognitive function, and lower the risk of age-related mental decline.

  7. Hormonal Balance:

    Vitamin D and K2 are involved in the regulation of hormonal processes in the body. Vitamin D supports the production and balance of various hormones, including insulin, while vitamin K2 aids in the synthesis of certain hormones, such as osteocalcin.

  8. Bone Density:

    Vitamin D and K2 are beneficial for maintaining bone density, particularly in post-menopausal women who are at a higher risk of osteoporosis. They help improve calcium absorption and promote the production of osteocalcin, a protein essential for bone formation.

  9. Joint Health:

    Vitamin D and K2 have anti-inflammatory properties that can help alleviate joint pain and inflammation associated with conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. They also support the production of collagen, a protein that helps maintain joint integrity.

  10. Skin Health:

    Vitamin D and K2 contribute to healthy skin. Vitamin D supports the immune system’s response to skin-related issues, while vitamin K2 aids in preventing excessive calcification in the skin, reducing the risk of conditions like psoriasis and acne.

Studies and Research

Numerous studies have examined the effects of vitamin D and vitamin K2 on bone health, particularly in relation to Bone Mineral Density (BMD), osteoporosis, and fractures.

Here are a few key studies:

  1. Study on vitamin D and K2:

    In a randomized controlled trial published in the “Journal of Bone and Mineral Research” in 2020. The study researched the combined effect of Vitamin K and Vitamin D on human bone quality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, In conclusion,  Vitamin K and D together can significantly increase the total BMD and significantly decrease undercarboxylated osteocalcin, and have a more favorable effect is expected when Vitamin K2 is used.

  2. Study on Vitamin K2: A study published in Osteoporosis International in 2013 examined the effects of Vitamin K2 (MK-7) supplementation on BMD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The researchers found that daily supplementation with Vitamin K2 over a three-year period resulted in significant increases in BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck compared to placebo.

  3. Study on Vitamin D:

    A systematic review and meta-analysis published in “The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology” in 2014 analyzed the effects of Vitamin D supplementation on BMD and fractures. The review concluded that Vitamin D supplementation had a modest positive effect on BMD at the femoral neck and total hip but did not significantly reduce the risk of fractures.

These studies suggest that both Vitamin D and Vitamin K2 play important roles in maintaining bone health. Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption and bone formation, while Vitamin K2 helps activate proteins that regulate calcium metabolism and promote bone mineralization. When used in combination or individually, these vitamins have shown potential benefits in improving BMD and reducing the risk of fractures, particularly in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. However, it’s important to note that individual responses may vary, and further research is still needed to fully understand the optimal dosages and long-term effects of Vitamin D and Vitamin K supplementation on bone health.

Vitamin D3 and K2 supplementation:

It’s important to note that individual needs for Vitamin D and K2 can vary, it’s recommended to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the appropriate dosage for your specific situation. They can consider factors such as age, overall health, current nutrient levels, and any existing medical conditions or medications you may be taking.

Additionally, a balanced diet that includes sources of Vitamin D (Raw Cremini Mushrooms and seafood) and Vitamin K2 (found in fermented foods) can contribute to meeting your nutritional needs. However, supplementation may be necessary in some cases, especially for individuals with limited sun exposure or specific dietary restrictions.

The suggested Vitamin D and K2 supplement is the Well of Life Vitamin D3 + K2 Chewable Capsules

Experts estimated that approximately 80% of Americans are K2 deficient due to their diet and around 41.6% of adults are deficient in Vitamin D3. This supplement is the perfect balance of  Vitamin D supplements. Taking Vitamin D on its own can cause an excess calcium build-up therefore, these capsules are combined with K2 with D3 to balance calcium levels and keep the body in a healthy state.

The Well of Life Chewable formula has BioPerine, a patented source of piperine, added to the capsule. Piperine is the active compound found in pepper and clinical studies have shown it to increase the bioavailability of nutrients. The Well of Life Vitamin D3 + K2 chewable capsules are all-natural and vegan-friendly. They are also free of gluten, sugar, GMOs, and binders. 

These essential supplements are made in the USA and are easily accessible on the Well of Life Online store. Well of Life Vitamin D3 + K2 Chewable Capsules

Key Notes

Clinical Studies are fast discovering the essential need for Vitamin D3 and K2 to maintain a healthy well-balanced life. Research on Vitamin K supplementation has shown that it not only plays a vital role in bone health but that the two vitamins work together in a synergistic effect. Good bone health is vital in the prevention of chronic diseases and bone-related age disorders.

The importance of combining these two vitamins is not only necessary for good bone health as it also boosts many other benefits to the overall health of a person such as cardiovascular health, immune health, cancer prevention, dental health, mood and mental health, hormonal balance, and skin health. Therefore, supplementation with high vitamin amounts of both Vitamin D3 and K2 is essential for the human body to thrive at its full potential.

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